Chip YardShasta Kamyr Digester

Shasta Pulp Mill Operations

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The pulp chip yard operation comprised of both hardwood and softwood chip piles along with a chip truck scale house and dump. The aroma of fresh cut wood filled the air around the chip yard. Top upper left photo depicts the pulp mill chip yard and chip truck hydraulic dump.

When walking into the chip shack (scale house) on graveyard to relieve the other chip unloader, one would quickly encounter another aroma which mimicked a smokehouse. Walter

Kamyr Lighter

During each swing shift, wood chip samples which had been taken from the loads of chips arriving by truck prior that day, would be dried in an oven to remove moisture, then weighed and recorded later. Some of these oven dried chips were of alder, which gave the chip shack that strong aromatic smokehouse odor.

Depicted in the right photo is Walt C. who operated the scale house/chip shack on shift.

From the chip pile, an end loader operator would stage large bucket fulls of chips into bins using a 980 CAT, so that a combination of both auger screw and belt conveyor would then transport these wood chips up into the two digester shaker screens.Kamyr Belt BuckleKamyr Lighter

These metal screens would then sift and separate the wood chips by size, rejecting those which were either too large, or too fine. From the chip screens, the usable wood chips were then transported up by conveyor to the chip bin inside the digester building to begin the 'cooking' process at the Kamyr Digester.

The three upper photos depict vintage cigarette lighters and a brass belt buckle which were given out by the Kamyr Inc. of Glens Falls, New York perhaps as sales promotional gifts to one of it's many loyal customers.

Digester Control

Shasta Pulp Mill Kamyr Digester at night

The wood fiber 'cooking' operation consisted of a Kamyr continuous digester which used both 'cooking Liquors' and steam to break down the wood lignin by 'cooking' it and thus soften the wood chips used to make pulp. The Shasta Kamyr Digester was initially rated for 190 tons of pulp fiber per day when installed back in 1971. The Kamyr Digester replaced the original IMPco. digester which K-C had installed in 1964.

During the shift up in Digester Control, the smell of a freshly brewed pot of Yuban coffee would fill the room, as the 'Oldies' played in the background on the radio. The 'digester cook' would go through their daily routine of making minor adjustments to the equipment. Digester Vessel

Occasionally throughout the day, the digester operator would also need to go up to the two chip screens and remove any excess wood bark and or other debris which may have accumulated on them. Also, the digester liquor heaters would need to be taken off-line occasionally and acid washed.

Chip Meter

In the upper right photo taken sometime during the 1970s, Don N. is at the helm, making process adjustments as the digester operator on shift, up inside the Shasta pulp mill digester control room. On the television monitor in the background, the operator is able to view from his control room, the two shaker room chip screens.

Don is also observed in the left photo, at the low pressure feeder, at the south end, just above the digester steaming vessel unit.

Steam Vessel

From the steaming vessel, the chips then went through the high pressure feeder where they were then forced up to the top of the digester unit. We're Up!

From the top separator, the chips slowly traveled down through the digester vessel as steam, cooking liquors and time performed the actual cooking process. Left photo depicts the south end location of the Shasta pulp mill steaming vessel.

In March of 1993, the pulp mill complex was shutdown for nearly two years. The mill was started back up again in February of 1995. The right photo depicts the start-up design on a tee-shirt handed out to the Shasta pulp mill employees during this start-up phase.

A Shasta Mill digester production record was established of over 300 Metric Tons Per Day (MTPD), beginning with the Crew 4 'fiber line' on swing shift- October 4th of 2000. Due to modifications in design, newer built digesters are now capable of higher production rates.

Now click on the following link to take a pictorial tour around the Shasta Pulp Mill Kamyr Continuous Digester Unit.

A pictorial tour of the Shasta Digester Unit
Click here to tour by photograph, The Shasta Pulp Mill Kamyr Continuous Digester Unit

Brownstock WashingBrownstock Washers

From the digester, the cooked wood or 'fiber' was then 'blown' over to the blow tank via either blow line A or B, where it was then pumped up to the Hot Stock Screen and then on into Brownstock washing. Spiral Condenser

The 'washroom' used 'filtrates' to begin the 'washing' process of the fiber. The air around brownstock would occasionally have a tinge odor of turpentine due to both the cooking process and washing of the wood fibers. Final Repulper

From the two stage Impco brownstock washers, the 'stock' crossed a 'final repulper' (left photo), then dumped into 'grannies tub' storage. From here, the pulp was then pumped on over to the screen room building.

At the Shasta Pulp Mill screen room, the pulp entered the #3 Impco washer (lower left photo). From the washer and repulper, the pulp was then pumped up into the Brownstock Storage Tower. Various screen room processes were monitored inside the control room (lower right photo).

No. 3 Washer Screen Room Control

From Brownstock Storage, the pulp was directed up into the primary screen head box, where it then flowed by gravity down into the three primary screens which removed impurities (rejects) from the pulp. Hooper Nameplate

In the following wide angle photograph, the long stainless steel screen room primary head box is depicted in the upper background, with the three Hooper primary screens located below it. The three black instrument gauges monitored pressure. The large industrial motors which once powered the screens have since been removed. They were located on the existing mounting platforms seen toward the top of each screen which utilized belts in order to drive the unit.

Primary Headbox and Screens

There was also further screening (both secondary and tertiary) as depicted in the lower left photo. Once the pulp was thoroughly screened, the 'acceptable' processed pulp then went through the screen room 'Decker' washer for one more final rinsing (lower right photo).

Secondary and Tertiary Screens The Screen Room Decker
Screened Stock Storage tile tower

At that point, the rinsed pulp was then staged in a large tile tower known as the Screened Stock Storage Tower (photo right). From there, the Bleach Plant could access the unbleached pulp from the tower and begin the bleaching process as the pulp traveled through a series of six stage washers and 'retention' towers at the Bleach Plant.

Dick and Tracy The air around the Bleach Plant was filled with the pungent odor of either chlorine or chlorine dioxide which was manufactured on-site at the CD Plant or CLo2 plant.

Danger Chlorine!

Left photo depicts Tracy B. and Dick L. out on the digester platform keeping a watch on the overflow lid (explosion door) on the bleach plant D2 retention storage tower during a prolonged paper mill shutdown.

Once all the pulp mill storage towers became full of stock, then the digester would be required to be shut down, or placed into an 'idle' mode. Once the storage towers were drawn down, the digester could then be taken off idle mode and 'ramped up' again to produce pulp.

The following top three photos depict the Chlorine Dioxide (CLo2) plant. Next are photos are of the Shasta Pulp Bleachery or Bleachplant:

generator cd plant chemical storage cd plant view
Bleachplant Washers Bleachery Washer CD line

The next series of photographs depict bleachplant personnel and various equipment found around the bleachplant area. In the left hand photo, Shasta bleachplant helper Bill A. is seen depicted holding a sodium chlorate sample in a beaker along with a 'CD' generator sample retrieved from the CD plant area. Middle photograph depicts a scene from the Chlorine Dioxide Storage Tower unit. From left to right are: Shasta pulp relief super. Rick D. (with a 'sniffer' wand in hand); Shift Super. John G. ('Guggie'); George G. (Pulp Mill Maintenance with back toward camera); and Nils R. (Shasta Pulp Mill Superintendent on right). In the following right hand photograph, bleachplant operator Don. B. is seen inside the Shasta bleachplant control room at his desk.
Bill cd plant storage Operator Don

The next photographs depict the series of white water receiver towers found outside the bleachplant (lower left photo). A view of one of the various equipment found down in the bleachplant basement (middle photo). Lower right hand photo depicts Shasta bleachplant helper Dick L. as an 'observer' at the No. 5 washer during a maintenance down inside the bleachplant.
Bleachplant Washers mix pump Dick

A few more views from down in the bleachplant 'basement' area:
bleached stock lines thick stock 250 stock line
250 Ton Bleached Pulp Tower

Pulp Storage Towers

Once the pulp was thoroughly bleached, it was then pumped up from the bleachplant through a large diameter pipe (upper right photo) and staged in a large stainless steel tower known as the 250 Ton High Density storage tower. From this point, the two paper machines could draw their stock from this storage unit.

The pulp mill flash dryer unit could also pull stock from storage (the 50 Ton kraft storage tower adjacent to the 250 Ton HD storage tower). Stock pulled from the 250 Ton High Density tower was called Incoming Shasta Kraft or "ISK" over at the papermachines.

Upper left photo depicts a view looking up at both the 50 Ton storage tank (far left edge) with the 250 Ton High Density Storage tower on the right. A valve located on the large stainless steel stock flow pipe on the 250 Ton High Density Storage tower (near mid right side of photo) permitted bleachplant operations an ability to divert kraft stock from the bleachplant into either storage tower unit.

Recovery Control

Right photo depicts the series of bleachplant towers, with the massive 250 Ton High Density bleached kraft pulp storage tower in the foreground.

The pulp mill also had an efficient 'recovery' system which reprocessed liquids used in the pulping process. The chemicals used in the cooking and pulp washing processes were collected in storage tanks and boiled down at the Recovery Boiler.

Shasta recovery boiler operator Dick M. is standing next to the main recovery boiler control panel in the upper left photo. The operator was responsible for safe and efficient operation of the boiler unit.

In the following two photographs, Shasta recovery boiler crew members Dale D. (lower left) and Val B. (lower right) take a short break up in the Shasta Recovery Control Room.

Dale Val

Recovery Building Recovery Building

Recovery thus could both retrieve and extract pulp processing chemicals from these spent liquids known as 'liquors'. Left photo depicts the Shasta Pulp Mill Recovery building and stack unit.

Another byproduct produced at the Recovery Boiler was steam. High pressure steam was used in various parts of the mill, including the digester, which used steam in the 'cooking' process of the wood chips.

Shasta Pulp Mill Recovery Boiler

During the last months of mill operation up to the final plant shutdown in August of 2001, the Recovery Boiler experienced intermittent problems with it's Economizer unit which necessitated the shutting down of the entire mill.

'Pitting' problems were determined along the metal surfaces inside the economizer which required the unit to be taken off-line in order so that repairs could thus be made.

Shasta Pulp Mill Recovery Boiler at night

The main boiler unit also had to be taken off-line at this time and immediately shut down which would then affect the whole mill operation.

Now just click on the following link to take a personal tour around inside the Shasta Pulp Mill Recovery Boiler operating area.

Come take a tour around the inside of the Shasta Recovery Boiler unit
Come tour the inside of the Shasta Pulp Mill Recovery Boiler Unit

And after the tour of the inside of the boiler area, just click on the following link to view a series of panoramic photos taken from on top of the Shasta Pulp Mill Recovery Boiler unit.

A view from on top of the Shasta Recovery Boiler
Click here to have a bird's eye view from on top of Shasta County's tallest building: The Shasta Pulp Mill Recovery Boiler Unit

Recovery Effects

Lime Kiln 'Dog House'

The pulp mill also had a lime kiln which also aided in the reprocessing of materials used in the pulping process. Caustic white liquor to be used in the digester wood chip cooking process was created by joint processing of both the kiln and recovery. Shasta Lime Kiln

Upper right photo depicts the Lime Kiln 'Dog House' where mud-like material began it's journey down through the lime kiln to eventually become caustic white liquor.

The kiln's ID fan and emissions stack were also located in this area.

White Liquor Clarifier

During the reprocessing of the mud, large 'lime balls' would occasionally develop as the mud hardened as it traveled down the kiln.

The presence of such balls inside the kiln unit would require that an operator use a Winchester 8 gauge industrial shotgun mounted on a portable, movable stand to discharge a large slug into the ball in order to break up the ball into smaller pieces. The kiln gun was also used to remove mud lime rings which would occasionally form along the brick wall inside the hot kiln.

A pictorial walk-around of the Shasta Pulp Lime Kiln-Recausticizing area
Now click here for a brief walk-around via a series of photographs: The Shasta Pulp Mill Lime Kiln-Recausticizing area

White Liquor ClarifierWhite Liquor Clarifier Tank

The kiln replaced the original calciner unit which had been on site since 1964. Construction of the lime kiln began back around 1981.

Two left photos depict construction of the new white liquor clarifier storage tank which was located adjacent to the Shasta digester building. This storage unit was built as the kiln was being installed.

Note that the insulation sheets have not been added yet to the storage tank at the time which these two photos were taken. Right photo depicts the white liquor clarifier storage tank while in service several year's later.

Click on the following link to view photos of the actual kiln installation during 1981.

Shasta Lime Kiln Installation
Click here to view the installation of the Shasta Lime Kiln back in 1981

Effluent Office

Located out in the pulp mill area was the mill effluent operation. Effluent operators would perform various tests to ensure that the waste processes were meeting both state and federal standards at the millsite.

Right photo depicts a view looking south near the chip yard, with a view of the Shasta Mill effluent operator building in the foreground with the mill's wood chip weigh station or scale house in the background.

Two next photos depict Shasta Mill effluent operators Pat Mc Q. (left) and Paul H. (right).

Pat Paul

Tests were also performed daily to verify that the Shasta Mill was in compliance with all state and federal environmental regulations in regard to treated mill waste water being discharged into the Sacramento River.

The next series of photographs depict various mill effluent pollution control equipment such as primary clarifiers, settling ponds and mill effluent containment facilities.

clarifier clarifier clarifier
effluent containment effluent containment effluent containment
clarifier rake clarifier rake clarifier rake

Within the screen room building complex located behind the bleachplant, treated mill sludge was sent through a large screw press which removed moisture content from this sludge before the remaining mill solids were then transported up to the operation's landfill.

The pulp mill also had a pulp flash dryer which pressed fluff kraft pulp into bales which then could be stored for later use at the paper machine, or shipped out to customers by rail. Lower left photo depicts an overhead view of the Shasta Mill pulp dryer building. Right photo- the pulp dryer and baler.

Pulp Dryer Pulp Dryer and Baler

Depicted in the following photos is the Shasta Pulp Mill office and in the lower right photo the old pulp mill office.

New Pulp Mill Office office hallway
office inside Old Pulp Mill Office

Also located within the pulp mill was the LM 5000 jet engine co generation plant. More information about 'Cogen' can be found on the cogeneration page.

Lime Kiln Chlorine Gas Warning tower view
Digester Building Recovery Boiler Blow Tank