No.1 Paper MachineWet End

No. 1 Paper Machine Floor

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The No. 1 Paper Machine floor was the original paper manufacturing operation when Kimberly-Clark of Neenah, Wisconsin had the mill constructed in 1963-1964. The wet end

Beloit Name Plate

The No.1 paper machine was manufactured by the Beloit Company of Beloit, Wisconsin. Beloit Iron Works filed for bankruptcy protection just prior to the closure of the Shasta Mill. Right photo depicts an original Beloit machine plate. Beloit, the Shasta Mill's former partner in U.S. domestic papermaking. No.1 wet end

According to Beloit company records, an order (order no. 462) was placed for the No.1 paper machine fourdrinier to be built at Beloit, shipped to the Shasta Mill and installed with a start-up date of 1964.

The No.1 fourdrinier was to be manufactured with a machine width or deckle of 186 inches and a factory set speed of 2500 rpm. Paper actually didn't start coming off the machine until sometime in early 1965. In addition to the paper machine, the No 1 side also had an Off Machine Coater.

No.1 Paper Machine-wet endNo.1 Paper Machine-wet end

One can almost smell the various mixtures of clay, starch and other combinations of ingredients used in the manufacture of fine paper.

From the head box at the "wet end", the watery pulp mixture made its way through the Fourdrinier machine along a "wire" where it was then picked up onto the felt. At this point, it then went through the press section and onto the 1st stage or main dryer section.

No 1 wireNo1 press and 1st dryer section

After initial drying, the paper then went into the size press/roll coater, then into the 2nd section for final drying. From there, it was wound up onto a spool which would then become a "reel" of paper.

Along with the main machine floor, more paper manufacturing process equipment could be found located down below, in the main basement area on the lower floor which ran the entire length of the two paper machines. The basement area could become damp and humid, and also very noisy due to the operation of various equipment.

stock pipes Tile Machine Chest

A series of metal stairs led down to this area, in which a maze of stainless steel pipes that carried the stock and liquid to be used in the manufacturing process were routed throughout to various points in the basement.

In Addition to the stairs, a service elevator located just outside the maintenance department hallway door, permitted various equipment along with materials to be transported onto the main paper machine floor upstairs. agitator

service elevator

This elevator also allowed the employees with forklifts the ability to remove slabs of 'broke' or sub-standard quality paper off of the machine floor and haul this material back down the elevator, so that the paper could then be repulped.

The elevator was wide enough to accommodate many various forms of portable equipment. It could also hold and transport vehicles up to the length and width of say, that of a Chevy Corvette. DER

Stock Prep personnel played an important role in preparing the basic raw materials to be used in the beginning of the papermaking process. Agitator

Several tile or stock prep machine chests which both hardwood and softwood pulp kraft stock were stored in and blended were also located in the downstairs areas below both No 1 and No 2 paper machines.

Large metal agitator blades manufactured by the Jones Division of Beloit, were housed inside these chests or tanks. Jones Plate

The purpose of these blades were to keep the stock continually blended and moving inside the tank, thus preventing it from 'de-watering' and settling to the bottom of the chest. KRAFT

'Kraft' and 'DER' operations were also located in the basement, which reclaimed and recycled off quality paper or 'broke' from various areas of the mill, along with 'trim'. A large guillotine would chop up 'BTR' beater rolls which would then be repulped. Depicted in the upper left photo is the guillotine.

This reclaimed broke would then be added to the chest and blended to be used again in the paper making process. Bales of kraft pulp were also staged and added into the papermaking process here. stock pumps and motors

Along with the tile storage chests, large industrial DC motors, centrifugal pumps and associated electrical conduit were installed and maintained throughout the basement which permitted the transfer of the stored materials such as stock up through the extensive piping system.

Boil Out

Various valves, flow control meters and consistency monitors also were installed at determined intervals along these pipes which permitted accurate operator control of the materials going up to the two paper machines.Mill Safety Sign

Also found in the basement were the major insulated high pressure steam lines which were mounted at length along the ceiling at various points which serviced the machines. The basement also provided ready access from underneath to various sections of the paper machine equipment.  A reel of paper from No. 1

Getting back to the manufactured product just wound up on that large metal spool.Shasta One Dryer section It may be somewhat difficult to visualize that wages, salaries, raw materials purchased, various supplies, and cost of utilities used in the manufacturing of, all came out of the sales of product originating from that very same reel of paper. Once all costs associated in the paper's manufacturing were offset, then the remainder would become the margin of profit.

Seasoned machine and back tenders actually made the paper using 'recipes' drawn from experience.  Stockman Control Panel

 Stockman Control

Left photo depicts the No. 1 Stockman Control Panel located inside the machine tender's station. Note the many various controls which the operator was responsible for.

Right photo depicts a section of stockman operational control buttons.

 Annunicator Panel

Many years of experience of working on a paper machine were required before becoming a skilled papermaker.

What does it take to become a seasoned papermaker? Click on the following link for a series of photos of various equipment located both in and around the paper machine area. Maintenance was also required to be familiar about how to make the necessary repairs to this complex industrial equipment.
Papermaking Knowledge
Click here to view several Shasta Mill papermaking components

Depicted in the lower right photo is the late Gene Behn.

Gene Behn press

Like many others, Gene had moved out from Wisconsin back in 1964, to relocate out to the Shasta Mill in Anderson.

Gene first worked on the OMC at Shasta. Then eventually over time, he worked his way up the progression ladder and moved up into the machine tender position on Shasta One, where he would then retire at.

Machine Break

The Shasta No.1 paper machine manufactured Label grades of paper such as C1S (coated one side) for the west coast canneries such as Del Monte. No 1 Dryer Section

Label grades of paper manufactured off of this machine also ended up wrapped around on many premier bottled brands of select regional wines.

No.1 also produced grades of paper for text book publishers. Paper destined for school yearbook printers is one such example. No.1 paper machine paper also found its way to poster printing publishers.

The paper machine floor could be both very hot and humid during the months of summer.Single Drum If the paper machine had a "sheet break", crews would be immediately dispatched into the dryer section in order to pull the large wad of paper out of the machine. Single Drum Winder

This could become unbearable work, depending on how long one was inside the dryer section. The photo to the upper right depicts a series of windows along the dryer section.

Located between the No.1 paper machine and the Off Machine Coater (OMC) was the Single Drum Winder.

Coating Plant

Coating Plant

The purpose of the single drum winder was to both reduce defects and trim the uncoated sheet prior to the paper entering the OMC.

Upper left photo: The Single Drum Winder. Upper right photo depicts the operator station at the single drum winder.


A coating plant mixed up the coating to be used on the Off Machine Coater (OMC). The OMC would apply a thin layer of coating to the paper that had come off the single drum winder after it was made on the No. 1 paper machine.Off Machine Coater-OMC A coating could either be added on one side to create paper destined to printers for labels, or the paper could be coated on both sides for text books and other paper products which required a double-sided coating.

OMC Reel

From the OMC, the paper would either be fed into the 175 Super Calendar in order to bring out the glossiness of the paper, or if the paper was to be a "matted" finish, then the reel of paper would bypass the 175 Super Calender and go directly to the Double Drum Rewinder.

The 175 Super Calender would apply both pressure, heat and roll speed in order produce or bring out the gloss on the coating of the paper.

Swing-up at the 175 SuperCal stack175 Super Calender Rolls

If the OMC or paper machine produced a defect, or if a paper splice was not marked properly and detected prior to the "swing-up" (when the next reel was fed into the super calender); then the paper while traveling at a high rate of speed through the calender stack (a combination of steel, cotton or synthetic 'supertex' coated rolls) may snap off, which in many cases would "mark-up" the calendar rolls which either necessitated a roll change or the crew would need to "file or cut-out" the marks in the damaged rolls.

Extreme caution had to be used while removing calender "marks ". In other words, keep those hands and files away from the "Nip Point" while the stack rolls were turning!!

Once the marks were removed, it was then time to rethread the paper and get going again. In other words, "Time to 'swing up'!"

175 Super Calender OMC floor

The Double Drum Rewinder would take the large parent reel of paper that had been manufactured and split it down to the request of what the customer needs were, or it would split it in order that the smaller rolls could be used on the converting equipment in the paper finishing department.


Accuracy was required at this point as the paper was slit at the Double Drum and wound upon cores. If the paper or core was not aligned just right, then what was known as "run-togethers" would result which required the Double Drum helper to drive wooden wedges into the run-together rolls of paper in order to try to break them apart. If this was not successful, then the roll was sent downstairs via the roll elevator and placed out on the dock and a crew would use a chain saw in order to divide the run-together rolls.

Left photo depicts a row of 'slitters' at the double drum.

The following photos depict the 175 Double Drum Winder which was located at the south end of the main paper machine floor. Upper left and lower left photos depict the original control panel at the double drum which was later replaced by more up to date technology (upper right photo) which also utilized less space.

175 Double Drum 175 Double Drum Double Drum
Control Panel DDW Slitters Double Drum

Roll LowervatorCore Room

Right photo depicts the core room where the employees would cut cores in which the paper was wound upon once slit at the double drum.

View 'Pete's' Beginner's Guide to Paper Making (PDF)

Beginner's Guide to Paper Making (PDF)

Welcome! to the Papermill!

After you have "punched in" at the time clock, go grab a pair of earplugs and put on your "steel toe" footwear, then quickly go find a place to "HIDE"! Before anyone finds you, read this book. It will tell you many things you need to know. It may help you to avoid many mistakes. It will keep you from asking too many dumb questions. It may even keep you from working here.

Good Luck!